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What is an Alternative Asset?
The term "alternative asset" is highly flexible; it can mean almost anything whose investment performance is not correlated with that of stocks and bonds. It may include physical assets, such as precious metals, real estate, or commodities. In some cases, geographic regions, such as emerging global markets, are considered alternative assets. Complex or novel investing methods also qualify. For example, hedge funds use techniques that are off-limits for
most mutual funds, while private equity investments rely on skill in selecting and managing specific businesses. Finally, collectibles are included because the value of your investment depends on the unique properties of a specific item as well as general interest in that type of collectible. Each alternative asset type involves its own unique risks and may not be suitable for all investors. Because of the complexities of these various markets, you would do well to seek expert guidance if you want to include alternative assets in a portfolio.
Private Equity/Venture Capital
Like stock shares, private equity and venture capital represent an ownership interest in one or more companies, but firms that make private equity investments may or may not be listed or traded on a public market or exchange. Private equity firms often are involved directly with management of the businesses in which they invest. Private equity often requires a long-term focus. Investments may take years to produce any meaningful cash flow (if indeed they ever do); many funds have 10-year time horizons and you may not have access to your funds when you want them. Like hedge funds, private equity also typically requires a large investment and is available only to investors who meet SEC net worth and income requirements.
Hedge funds are private investment vehicles that manage money for institutions and wealthy individuals. They generally are organized as limited partnerships, with the fund managers as general partners and the investors as limited partners. The general partner may receive a percentage of the assets, fees based on performance, or both. Hedge funds originally derived their name from their ability to hedge against a market downturn by selling short. Though they may invest in stocks and bonds, hedge funds are considered an alternative asset class because of their unique, proprietary investing
strategies, which may include pairs trading, long-short strategies, and use of leverage and derivatives. Participation in hedge funds is typically limited to "accredited investors," who must meet SEC-mandated high levels of net worth and ongoing income (individual funds also usually require very high minimum investments).
You may make either direct or indirect investments in buildings--either commercial or residential--and/or land. Direct investment involves the purchase, improvement, and/or rental of property. Indirect investments are made through an entity that invests in property, such as a real estate investment trust (REIT), which may be either publicly traded or not. Real estate not only has a relatively low correlation with the behavior of the stock market, but also is often viewed as a hedge against inflation. However, bear in mind that physical real estate can be highly illiquid, may involve more work on your part to manage, and may be subject to weather hazards, rezoning or other factors that can reduce the value of your property. The value of a traded REIT will depend on fluctuations in the value of its real estate holdings as well as investor sentiment and market volatility. The value of a nontraded REIT is directly based on the value of its underlying real estate holdings. All REITs are subject to the risks associated with the real estate market in general. Also, some types of REITs are considered more illiquid than others, which could mean problems if you need to sell quickly.
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Prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc. Copyright 2016